Journal of South Asian Association of Pediatric Dentistry

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2023 | May-August | Volume 6 | Issue 2

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Gauri Kalra, Jatinder K Dhillon

Artificial Intelligence: A Boon or Bane to Researchers

[Year:2023] [Month:May-August] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:49 - 50]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3277  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Veena Arali, Atluri N Supraja, Harika Rapala, Charan T Vemagiri, Mounika Kallakuri, Gannamani LGSP Kumar

Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Etidronic Acid and Propolis against E. faecalis in Primary Teeth: An In Vivo Study

[Year:2023] [Month:May-August] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:51 - 55]

Keywords: Enterococcus faecalis, Etidronic acid, Propolis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3268  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and background: The study aimed to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of 11% alcoholic extract of propolis and 9% etidronic acid against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in endodontically treated necrotized primary teeth. Methods and materials: A total of 30 necrotic primary molars, either maxillary or mandibular teeth in children of age 3–8 years, were randomly included, of these 15 teeth were irrigated with 11% alcoholic extract of propolis (group I) and 15 teeth with 9% etidronic acid (group II); two microbiological samples with sterile paper points were taken from within the canal in both groups, first sample after the access opening and before first irrigation (S1), and another sample after final irrigation and debridement of infection, before obturating the tooth (S2). All samples (S1 and S2) were evaluated for the presence of E. faecalis by colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL). Results: In group I, a statistically significant decline in CFU/mL (p < 0.05) was observed in samples before and after irrigation. The same results were obtained with group II, with a statistically significant decline of CFU/mL (p < 0.05). Among both groups, after irrigation, a statistically significant decline was noticed in support of 9% etidronic acid. Conclusions: The 9% etidronic acid exhibited a greater decrease of CFU/mL against E. faecalis than that observed with an 11% alcoholic extract of propolis. Hence, etidronic acid can be proposed as an alternative irrigant for necrotic primary teeth.



Diksha Bhat, Monika Gupta, Inder K Pandit, Neeraj Gugnani

A Comparative Study to evaluate the Clinical Efficacy of a Novel Alkasite-based Material (Cention N), Resin-modified Glass Ionomer Cement, and Composite Resin for Restoration of Class II Cavities in Primary Molars: A Randomized Control Trial

[Year:2023] [Month:May-August] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:56 - 61]

Keywords: Class II restorations, Composite resin, Dental caries, Primary molar

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3262  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate and compare the clinical success of an alkasite-based restorative material (Cention N), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) (3M ESPE Vitremer), and composite resin (Ceram X) when used as a restorative material in class II cavities in primary molars. Materials and methods: Around 45 primary molars were randomly divided into three equal groups—group I—Cention N, group II—RMGIC (3M ESPE Vitremer), and group III—composite (Ceram X) and restored with restorative materials, respectively. At 1-week, 1, and 4-month recall intervals the restorations were evaluated using FDI—criteria. Internal root resorption and pulp vitality were also evaluated at 4-month recall intervals. Results: The data were analyzed using the Chi-squared test. Cention N proved to exhibit the best performance followed by RMGIC and composite resin. After 4 months of recall intervals, the statistical analysis showed a significant difference in terms of marginal/surface staining (p = 0.004), material fracture/retention (p = 0.001), marginal adaptation (p = 0.027), and postoperative sensitivity (p = 0.046), however, a nonsignificant difference was observed in terms of recurrence of caries (p = 0.407), internal root resorption (p = 0.207), and pulp vitality (p = 0.207) in all the three groups. Conclusion: Cention N exhibited the highest success rate when compared to RMGIC and composite resin.



Shivangi Sharma, Jean N Murry, N Sathyajith Naik, Pallavi Vashishth, Smriti Saxena, Mongshithung N Murry

Content Analysis of Oral Health Information in Science Textbooks: A Cross-sectional Study in Schools of Bareilly City, India

[Year:2023] [Month:May-August] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:62 - 65]

Keywords: Content analysis, Health messages, School textbooks

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3263  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Oral health affects general health, way of life, and well-being. Early tooth loss is an indication that the general population is ignorant about dental disorders. Books can influence children's thinking regarding habits and how to incorporate them into their lifestyles in addition to serving as their primary source of knowledge. This study evaluated the oral health information presented in science textbooks for standard I–X across various school boards in Bareilly city. Materials and methods: A total of 26 schools from standards I to X across a variety of boards were involved in the current survey. To conduct content analysis for different standards based on content, extent, and evidence, an assessment instrument of important components associated with oral health was employed. The data were analyzed descriptively using Microsoft Excel 2013. Results: A maximum of 17 core components were found in the ICSE Board, followed by 11 core components in the CBSE Board, and only one core component was found in the State Board of Bareilly city. About 109 messages and 74 pictures were found on the CBSE Board, and 102 messages and 55 pictures were found on the ICSE Board. Only three messages and four pictures were found on State (UP) Board. Conclusion: The textbooks from various publications used in Bareilly city State Board schools severely lack information on dental health. Included oral health-related material is essential for decreasing the prevalence of dental illnesses among teachers and students.



Leena Verma, Ravi Sharma, Sidhi Passi, Urvashi Sharma

Is there any Association between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index among 8–10 Years Pediatric Clinic Attenders in Chandigarh Area? A Correlation Study

[Year:2023] [Month:May-August] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:66 - 70]

Keywords: Body mass index, Child, Dental caries, Obesity

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3265  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the correlation between dental caries and obesity in 8–10 years school children of Chandigarh, India. Materials and methods: Around 100 children of the age range of 8–10 years who attended the Pediatrics OPD of Dr Harvansh Singh Judge Institute of Dental Sciences & Hospital, Chandigarh, India were selected. Four groups were made group I—25 healthy teeth and nonobese (HNO) children, group II—25 carious teeth and nonobese (CNO) children, group III—25 healthy teeth and obese (HO) children, and group IV—carious teeth and obese (CO) children. Caries score was recorded after careful examination. Stadiometer and balanced beam scale were used to measure height (m) and weight (kg), and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) was calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann–Whitney U tests were used to assess the data outcome. Results: The overall mean BMI was 26.2 [standard deviation (SD) = 5.2). Nonparametric test was performed using Poisson regression which showed no significant association between BMI and decayed, missing, and filled teeth/decayed, extracted, or filled (DMFdef) (p = 0.807). The severity of dental caries was evaluated by using a multivariate logistic regression analysis to see the association between dental caries as a binary dependent variable (low and high), and BMI as the independent variable. Statistically insignificant results were obtained (p = 0.841). Conclusion: The study conducted by us showed no association between caries and obesity but the long-term effect of caries on general health cannot be ignored. The proper measures which are taken to improve oral health can indirectly alter the risk factors for obesity thus improving both oral and general health of an individual.



Umapathy Thimmegowda, Sanchitha Venkatahanumaiah, Jaya A Ramachandra, Amrutha Ujjamma Bennehalli

Assessing the Accuracy of Two Dental Age Estimation Techniques—London Atlas and Demirjian's Methods in Bengaluru Children and Young Adults: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2023] [Month:May-August] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:71 - 76]

Keywords: Age estimation, Chronological age, Dental age, Demirjian's approach, Forensic dentistry, London atlas method

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3271  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Age estimation is also done on living people in medicolegal cases, including child labor, rape, child marriages, and illegal immigration without sufficient approved documentation. Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the relative effectiveness of two alternative approaches—London Atlas and Demirjian's methods—in estimating a person's chronological age in a sample population of Bengaluru residents. Materials and methods: From the database archives of the Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru, and five private diagnostic facilities in Bengaluru, 464 inhabitants of Bengaluru, aged 3–18, had radiographs selected for the study. There was a record of the sex, birth date, and image data. Using deidentified orthopantomograms (OPGs), two certified examiners evaluated the dental age estimation. Both examiners concurrently analyzed and graded the stages of tooth development and eruption. Results: There is a substantial positive and statistically significant correlation (p < 0.05) between chronological age and both biological age measures. Conclusion: The association between Demirjian's age and chronological age is marginally stronger than the relationship between the ages of the London Atlas and Demirjian.



Rabia I Ullah, Swati Dwivedi, Ankur Mishra, Vinod K Upadhyay

Management of Multiple Supernumerary Teeth Followed by Fixed Appliance Therapy: A Case Report

[Year:2023] [Month:May-August] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:77 - 81]

Keywords: 2 × 4 appliance, Case report, Impacted, Mesiodens, Supernumerary teeth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3273  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This case report aims to describe the treatment of a malocclusion resulting from the presence of multiple supernumerary teeth. Background: Most of the time, the presence of supernumerary teeth does not produce any clinical manifestations; nonetheless, in the case of mesiodens, if left untreated, it can lead to further orthodontic complications. Case description: This case report presents a case of a 10-year-old child showing multiple supernumerary teeth. Surgical intervention followed by orthodontic therapy was the treatment opted for. Conclusion: Extraction of supernumerary teeth, followed by fixed appliance therapy, is one of the best available treatment options. Clinical significance: The importance of recognizing the possible consequences associated with supernumerary teeth and preventing them should be well understood.



Manikya K Nanduri, Gaurav Gupta, Sandeep K Valasingam, Priyanka Gupta, Parth Shah

Feeding Plate Using Digital Intraoral Impression for Cleft Care in an Infant: A Case Report

[Year:2023] [Month:May-August] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:82 - 85]

Keywords: Case report, Cleft palate, Digital workflow, Feeding appliance, Impression-making, Obturator

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3272  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Orofacial clefts are the most frequent craniofacial abnormalities found in humans. A neonate with orofacial cleft which is developed due to incomplete fusion of facial as well as palatal structures might experience difficulties while feeding. The present case aims to depict digital impression-taking for the fabrication of a feeding obturator for a 7-day-old infant who was reported with a unilateral cleft. Treatment was given when the infant turned 3-weeks-old after parents’ compliance. The case highlights the importance of digital intraoral impression protocol in a newborn patient because of its accuracy, minimal invasiveness, and good clinical acceptability. The digital workflow could escalate the fabrication procedure of the feeding plate with a quick transfer of the digitally taken impression to the laboratory, maintaining the precision level thereby minimizing the invasiveness of impression taking and escaping the possibility of material aspiration. Digital impression satisfies the benefits of conventional feeding obturator/appliance reducing the discomfort and difficulties of the direct impression-taking and fabricating process.



Priyanka Aggarwal, Kopal Singh, Pallavi Anand, Pulkit Jhingan, Manvi Malik, Shivani Mathur

Compound Odontoma in Anterior Maxilla in a 10-year-old Pediatric Patient: A Case Report with 44 Denticles Extracted

[Year:2023] [Month:May-August] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:86 - 90]

Keywords: Case report, Compound odontoma, Cone-beam computed tomography, Odontoma, Odontogenic tumor, Surgical removal, 44 denticles

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3267  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Odontomas are the most common odontogenic hamartomas worldwide. These can be compound or complex. Case description: A 10-year-old male child reported a chief complaint of delayed eruption of permanent teeth in the upper front tooth region. Clinical examination revealed unerupted 21 and 22 with retained deciduous lateral incisors. Further, an orthopantomogram (OPG) was done, which revealed the presence of multiple small radiopaque teeth-like structures in the apical region of the retained deciduous lateral incisor 62 surrounded by a narrow radiolucent halo. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was done as a confirmatory test. A final diagnosis of compound odontoma was made, and conservative surgical enucleation was the treatment of choice. A total of 44 denticles were removed along with the follicle. They were sent for a biopsy, which confirmed the diagnosis as compound odontoma. Conclusion: It is crucial to diagnose these tumors early for a better prognosis.



Neha Shrestha, Sumita Upadhyay, Rasna Shrestha, Parayash Dallakoti

A Case Series of Resin Infiltration as Minimally Invasive Method for Treatment of Enamel Opacities

[Year:2023] [Month:May-August] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:91 - 94]

Keywords: Case report, Enamel opacities, Minimal invasive, Resin infiltration

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3276  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Enamel opacities occur because of defects in the formation of the organic matrix during the development of tooth enamel. These lesions are often seen in dental practice. It is a challenge to treat such lesions with minimal invasion, while also fulfilling esthetic demands. The initiation of the resin infiltration technique has provided an intermediate therapy option in the middle of preventive and corrective therapies. The present case report aims to report the treatment of enamel lesions in the anterior teeth of the arch, with resin infiltration procedure. Formally devised for the conservative treatment of initial carious areas, resin infiltration has been popular among practitioners because of its covering effect on decalcifying enamel and an array of advancing enamel defects.



Parayash Dallakoti, Sunanda Sundas, Sagar Adhikari, Sumana Sulu, Amita Rai

Management of Idiopathic Facial Palsy in Pediatric Patients: A Case Series

[Year:2023] [Month:May-August] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:95 - 98]

Keywords: Bell's palsy, Case report, Idiopathic facial paralysis, Management

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3270  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Bell's palsy, presently recognized as lower motor neuron palsy, is a diagnosis of elimination after careful exclusion of other etiologies. It tends to be the result of events that are compressive, infected, inflammatory, or traumatic to the nerve. The patient may present with signs of acute, idiopathic facial paralysis, sagging corners of the mouth, and an absence of the nasolabial fold on the impacted side. Case Description: This case series presents three different cases of Bell's palsy treated with different treatment modalities such as systemic steroids and antiviral medications, methylcobalamin, home exercises, physiotherapy, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy. Conclusion: Herpes simplex virus is the most frequent cause of Bell's palsy; however, there are several additional etiologies for facial palsy that should be thoroughly ruled out. Bell's palsy is less frequent in children as compared to adults; hence, early diagnosis and proper management are important.



Ravindranath Reddy, Charan Teja Vemagiri, Kiranmai Thote, K Ragini, D M Abirami, M Mathew

Management of an Infant with Natal Canine: An Unusual Case Report and Review

[Year:2023] [Month:May-August] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:99 - 102]

Keywords: Case report, Natal canine, Natal teeth, Supernumerary teeth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3269  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and background: The eruption of teeth in a particular pattern corresponds to the child's chronological age. However, factors like hereditary, endocrine disturbances, environmental conditions, and superficial positioning of tooth buds mark a significant alteration in the pattern of the eruption of teeth resulting in natal and neonatal teeth. Case description: A 6-day-old female child reported a chief complaint of a hard tooth-like structure in the maxillary anterior region. Clinical and radiological investigations confirmed the diagnosis of type II natal canine. Upon parent approval, extraction was performed under local anesthesia after administering supplementary vitamin K. Follow-up revealed no postoperative complications. Conclusion: Extraction is inevitable when the natal tooth is mobile, and administration of vitamin K is mandatory if performed before 10 days of age. Clinical significance: Counseling parents to alleviate their anxiety and educating the parents and pediatricians about such teeth will help in reporting more cases.


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