Journal of South Asian Association of Pediatric Dentistry

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2023 | January-April | Volume 6 | Issue 1

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Vijay P Mathur

Oral Health Sufferings of Early Childhood: Are We Failing as a Society

[Year:2023] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:1 - 2]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3259  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Zaina Gayas, Umme Azher

Comparative Evaluation of Influence of Self-assembling Peptide P11-4 Based Remineralization Agent on Incipient Dental Caries Lesions of Primary Teeth: A Polarized Light Microscopic Study

[Year:2023] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:3 - 8]

Keywords: Dental caries, Fluoride, Remineralization, Self-assembling peptide, White spot lesion

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3250  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Interception of the progression of incipient dental caries lesions with remineralization agents can facilitate their regression noninvasively. Aim: To evaluate the influence of self-assembling peptide P11-4 (oligopeptide 104) based remineralization agent in comparison to fluoride-enhanced hydroxyapatite gel on incipient caries lesions in primary teeth. Materials and methods: A total of 36 sound deciduous molars were selected and coated with two layers of acid-resistant varnish, leaving two windows (2 × 2 mm) on the buccal surface. The teeth were immersed in the demineralizing solution and incubated at 37°C for 4 days to produce artificial enamel caries lesions. One of the windows was assigned as a baseline lesion, while the other was designated as an experimental lesion and exposed to the test product and pH cycling. The samples were divided into three groups (n = 12). Group I—self-assembling peptide P11-4 gel, group II—fluoride-enhanced hydroxyapatite gel, and group III—control. The self-assembling peptide P11-4 and fluoride-enhanced hydroxyapatite were applied to the specimens for 5–3 minutes, respectively. The specimens were subjected to a 7-day pH-cycling regimen, followed by sectioning and examination under a polarized light microscope. Results: The remineralization agents demonstrated a decrease in mean lesion depth in comparison to baseline, with the group I demonstrating greater reduction (165.235 ± 7.569–107.704 ± 6.735 μm) in comparison to group II (175.365 ± 12.238–127.462 ± 7.111 μm). Conclusion: The self-assembling peptide P11-4 and fluoride-enhanced hydroxyapatite gel exhibited significant potential in the remineralization of artificial enamel caries lesions in primary teeth. However, the self-assembling peptide P11-4 demonstrated greater remineralization potential.



Priyanka, Nancy P Saharia, Shivani Mathur

Demographic Assessment of Laser Therapies in 0–18-year-olds: A Retrospective Study

[Year:2023] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:9 - 13]

Keywords: Diode laser, Pediatric dentistry, Retrospective study

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3255  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: LASER is an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.” It is one of the most innovative tools, widely being used nowadays in every aspect of dentistry, which increases the efficiency and specificity of dental treatment. Aim: Retrospective analysis of the demographic data for laser therapies in 0–18-year-olds for 5 years. Materials and methods: The 5-year data on the number of laser therapies done using a diode laser in 0–18-year-olds from April 2017 to April 2021 was collected using practicing software of the institution “Orion.” The collected data included—age, gender, and treatment performed with laser or used as an adjunct to other procedures and its frequency with respect to age and gender. The Chi-squared test was used for intergroup comparison of the frequency of various laser procedures. For all the statistical tests, p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant, keeping α error at 5% and β-error at 20%, thus giving power to the study as 80%. Results: A total of 1,427 laser therapies were conducted in a period of 5 years (April 2017–April 2021) in the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry. The frequency of laser therapies done, based on gender, was more in males, 819 (57.4%), when compared to females, 608 (42.6%). The most common procedure performed with laser was fluoride activation, followed by cavity disinfection, wound healing, etc. Conclusion: A laser is an innovative tool, and it can be applied widely in the field of pediatric dentistry to perform various procedures with minimal discomfort.



Jean N Murry, Shivangi Sharmaa, N Sathyajith Naik, Anushtha Kush, Mongshithung N Murry, Ravi Bhandari

Content Analysis of Oral Health Information in Science Textbooks: A Cross-sectional Study in State Boards of Northeast, India

[Year:2023] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:14 - 18]

Keywords: Content analysis, Health messages, School textbooks

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3254  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: In wealthier countries, the World Health Organization's (WHO) global plan for the promotion of oral health resulted in tremendous progress, but the situation is gloomy among deprived populations due to gaps in program implementation. One such neglected region is Northeast India. Aim: To perform a content analysis of the information on oral health in Science textbooks of standard I–X among state boards in Northeast India. Materials and methods: In Northeast India, a cross-sectional study was undertaken among seven different state boards. To get the needed number of states, convenience sampling was utilized. An assessment instrument of oral health-related key components was used to conduct content analysis for various standards based on content, extent, and evidence. Microsoft Excel 2013 was used to conduct a descriptive analysis of the data. Results: The study was completed in all seven state boards. A total of 124 pages in total were analyzed (243 oral health messages and 55 pictures). The highest percentage of core components (5) were found in VII standard textbooks of Mizoram (i.e., 100%), and 40% of core components were present in textbooks of all other states except Nagaland, where 0% of core components were seen. Conclusion: The Science textbooks of state boards of Northeast India need to be improvised since there is a massive lack of content related to oral health.



Tanya Roy, Geetanjali Jadhav, Pritesh N Gawali, Anand Shigli, Rahul Hegde, Roshni Rankawat

Dental Students Perception and Knowledge toward Child Abuse and Neglect in Dentistry: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2023] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:19 - 24]

Keywords: Child abuse and neglect, Dental neglect, Dental students

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3256  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study aimed to analyze the perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience of child abuse and neglect (CAN) among dental students in Pune, Maharashtra, India. The aim will help us come up with prevention strategies to help reduce the occurrence of CAN and also protect the children suffering. Materials and methods: A total of 400 dental students were provided with a questionnaire. Descriptive analysis was carried out by using the obtained data. Results: Dental students’ perception and knowledge about CAN are low and these professionals have poor attitudes and knowledge toward CAN by the code of conduct and law. The available information and education are also poor. Conclusion: The results obtained from the study showed that there is a lack of knowledge and poor attitude and perception about CAN among dental students that prevents them from detecting and identifying suspected cases. Continuing dental education is required to enhance the ability of professionals to detect CAN cases. This study showed how we need to focus more on the training of dental professionals when concerned with cases of CAN.



Bindu A Balakrishnan, Kannan Vadakkepurayil

Knowledge and Awareness About Importance of Primary Dentition Among Parents and Pediatricians

[Year:2023] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:25 - 30]

Keywords: Parents, Pediatricians, Primary dentition, Treatment needs

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3258  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Primary teeth are the first set of teeth that erupt in the oral cavity, which will be replaced by permanent teeth. Though these primary teeth exfoliate, they are very important, as they have certain functions and roles to play till their exfoliation. Aim: To determine the knowledge and awareness about the importance of primary dentition among parents of children below 12 years and pediatricians practicing modern medicine in different hospitals and private clinics. Materials and methods: The participant's awareness of the importance of primary dentition was evaluated based on a questionnaire. Participants were requested to mark the options which they perceived as most appropriate. In the case of parents, educational qualification, socioeconomic status, and geographic background were correlated to certain questions; similarly, for pediatricians, their area of practice and years of practice were correlated. The frequency or percentage of good awareness was calculated in both groups. The statistical significance of factors influencing good awareness of groups was calculated using Pearson's Chi-squared test. Results and discussion: The overall knowledge of parents and pediatricians regarding the importance of primary dentition is not satisfactory. However, the majority of the participants were curious to know the correct response and acquire more knowledge about the importance of primary dentition. Conclusion: It was concluded that pediatricians should receive more knowledge on the importance of primary dentition by including these in their curriculum. The motivation of parents regarding the importance of primary teeth through dental camps or educational programs by dental professionals is highly desired.



Subhani Vaidya, Senchhema Limbu, Parajeeta Dikshit, Manisha Malla

Oral Pyogenic Granuloma in an 11-year-old Child: A Case Report

[Year:2023] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:31 - 34]

Keywords: Oral cavity, Pyogenic granuloma, Surgical excision

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3251  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is the most common inflammatory hyperplasia occurring in the oral cavity that occurs as a reactive or reparative response to factors such as local irritation, physical trauma, food impaction, periodontitis, or hormonal factors. These lesions are seen most frequently among people in the 20s but are not common among children. This paper describes the case of a PG associated with an 11-year-old female patient, with a detailed description of clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features, and its surgical management by complete excision of the mass.



Swapnika Vegi, Veena Arali, Harika Rapala, Sritha Kolluri, Sasidhar Vajrala, Padma Praveena Mavuri

2 × 4 Appliance as a Sectional Intervention in Contrary to Conventional Correction of Malocclusions: A Series of Case Reports

[Year:2023] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:35 - 40]

Keywords: 2 x 4 appliance, Malocclusion, Maxillary anteriors

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3252  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: The 2 x 4 appliance is a simple and uncomplicated appliance that comprises the first permanent maxillary molars with bands, the maxillary incisors with bondable brackets, and an archwire that is continuously placed into the buccal tubes of the molar bands. Case details: We report three different case scenarios where 2 x 4 appliance was used to treat various developing malocclusions. Discussion: The 2 x 4 appliance offers many advantages over conventional techniques as it provides complete control of tooth movement in all three dimensions, allows accurate and rapid positioning of the teeth, extremely well tolerated, requires no adjustment by the patient. It is a versatile appliance which is well tolerated by the patients and their parents as well.



Sanchit Paul, Priyal P Sheth, Supriya Bhatara, Priyanka Sachdeva, Shivika Agarwal, Abhishek Soni

Upgrading Conventional Space Maintainers Using GrADS Appliance: A Case Report

[Year:2023] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:41 - 44]

Keywords: Early childhood caries, Fixed appliance, Interceptive orthodontics, Primary teeth, Space maintenance

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3253  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Premature loss of primary teeth due to untreated severe early childhood caries (SECC) leads to space loss, increased frequency of malalignment, and crowding in the successor permanent dentition. Owing to the prevalent negligence and delay in accessing care, multiple extractions in a dental arch result in complex presentations, rendering conventional space maintainer (SM) designs counterproductive. Aim: This case report aims to highlight a unique customized and improvised design—Groper's appliance with distal shoe modification (GrADS), for a 5-year-old boy suffering from delayed consequences of SECC. Case description: Full-mouth rehabilitation, including multiple extractions, was undertaken, following which a novel appliance was conceptualized combining the design of Nance palatal arch, distal shoe SM, and Groper's appliance to successfully meet all the requirements and optimally preserve arch integrity. Regular follow-up allowed the documentation of the eventual success of the appliance. Conclusion: Customized designs can pave the path of change in preventive and interceptive orthodontics for children.



Padma Praveena Mavuri, Veena Arali, Harika Rapala, A S Kumar, Sahana Ashok, Swapnika Vegi

Pyogenic Granuloma of Tongue in a 14-year-old Child: A Case Report

[Year:2023] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:45 - 48]

Keywords: Benign lesions of oral cavity in children, Granuloma pyogenicum, Pyogenic granuloma, Tongue

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3257  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is also known by various names such as granuloma pyogenicum or lobular capillary hemangioma. It is a well-known benign vascular oral lesion which commonly presents on skin and mucosa with an unknown etiology. Although the gingiva is the site of occurrence of most of pyogenic granulomas of the oral cavity, literature reports rare presentations in other sites, including the lips, tongue, palate, and oral mucosa. Case details: 14-year-old male patient presented to the department of Pediatric and preventive dentistry with the chief complaint of growth on the tongue since three months. The growth was slow, and initially it began as a pea-sized lesion which grew to its present size gradually. A solitary, exophytic, palpable, nontender, pedunculated growth was found intraorally on examination in the anterior two thirds of dorsum of tongue. Electrocautery was done to remove the entire lesion. Discussion: PG is diagnosed clinically based on characteristic history and clinical findings. It is a rapidly growing lesion with either smooth or lobulated surface, pedunculated or sessile, with erythematous surface which becomes pale on maturation and varies in size. Long standing trauma and gingival irritation caused by faulty tooth brushing may be one among the contributing factors. Though many treatment modalities exist, such as laser ablation, excision using Nd:YAG laser, cryosurgery, curettage, electrical cautery, chemical cauterization, surgical excision of the lesion, involving 1–2 mm of surrounding normal tissue, remains the treatment of choice.


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