Journal of South Asian Association of Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 6 , ISSUE 3 ( September-December, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Assessing the Remineralization Potential of Commercial Pediatric Dentifrices on Demineralized Deciduous Enamel Lesions: An In Vitro Scanning Electron Microscopy– Energy-dispersive X-ray Study

Krishnamoorthy Ragini, Veerabadhran M Mahesh, Selvaraj Vinodh, Muthusamy Manoharan, Mohanraj Kamatchi, Charan T Vemagiri

Keywords : Demineralization, Dentifrices, Remineralization

Citation Information : Ragini K, Mahesh VM, Vinodh S, Manoharan M, Kamatchi M, Vemagiri CT. Assessing the Remineralization Potential of Commercial Pediatric Dentifrices on Demineralized Deciduous Enamel Lesions: An In Vitro Scanning Electron Microscopy– Energy-dispersive X-ray Study. J South Asian Assoc Pediatr Dent 2023; 6 (3):129-133.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3281

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 30-12-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Aim: The study aimed to assess the remineralizing potential of three kinds of toothpaste Pigeon, Dentoshine, and Candycop qualitatively and quantitively using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, respectively. Materials and methods: A total of 60 enamel blocks each prepared by sectioning the buccal surface of the second primary molars were divided into three halves (upper, middle, and lower halves) and subjected to demineralization to induce artificial enamel lesions by coating the upper half with nail varnish. Upon coating the second half with nail varnish, a random allocation of samples was done on the type of dentifrice applied. Group I—treated with Pigeon, group II—with Dentoshine, group III—with Candycop followed by storage in artificial saliva. Samples after repeating the procedure twice daily for 7 days were subjected to SEM and EDX spectroscopy to evaluate the remineralizing potential. Inter- and intragroup statistical analysis was done using descriptive one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tuckey tests, respectively. Results: Candycop exhibited a higher mineralization [calcium (Ca)—26.736 ± 2.012, phosphorous (P)—12.676 ± 1.677] with uniform globular deposition on the enamel surface compared to group II treated with Dentoshine (Ca—23.903 ± 3.327, P—11.560 ± 2.840) and group I with Pigeon (Ca—23.308 ± 2.949, P—11.986 ± 2.952). Conclusion: Mineral deposition was exhibited by all three dentifrices nevertheless Candycop had shown superior remineralizing efficacy than Dentoshine and Pigeon with more unified Ca and P deposition.

  1. Sindhura V, Uloopi KS, Vinay C, et al. Evaluation of enamel remineralizing potential of self–assembling peptide P11–4 on artificially induced enamel lesions in vitro. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2018;36(4):352–356. DOI: 10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_255_18
  2. Tulumbacı F, Oba AA. Efficacy of different remineralization agents on treating incipient enamel lesions of primary and permanent teeth. J Conserv Dent 2019;22(3):281–286. DOI: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_509_18
  3. Vemagiri CT, Uloopi KS, Chandrappa V, et al. Comparison of caries assessment spectrum and treatment needs index with def index in measuring dental caries among 2–6-year-old schoolchildren: a descriptive cross-sectional survey. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2021;19(2):104–108. DOI: 10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_113_20
  4. Soares R, De Ataide IN, Fernandes M, et al. Assessment of enamel remineralisation after treatment with four different remineralising agents: a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study. J Clin Diagn Res 2017;11(4):136–141. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/23594.9758
  5. Ravi PV, Sekar R, Ramar K. Evaluation of remineralization potential of natural substances on artificially induced carious lesions in primary teeth: an in vitro study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2023;16(2):244–250. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2569
  6. Malekafzali B, Ekrami M, Mirfasihi A, et al. Remineralizing effect of child formula dentifrices on artificial enamel caries using a pH cycling model. J Dent (Tehran) 2015;12(1):11–17.
  7. Arifa MK, Ephraim R, Rajamani T. Recent advances in dental hard tissue remineralization: a review of literature. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2019;12:139–144. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1603
  8. Gaffar A, Blake-Haskins JC, Sullivan R, et al. Cariostatic effects of a xylitol/NaF dentifrice in vivo. Int Dent J 1998;48(1):32–39. DOI: 10.1111/j.1875-595x.1998.tb00691.x
  9. Sano H, Nakashima S, Songpaisan Y, et al. Effect of a xylitol and fluoride containing toothpaste on the remineralization of human enamel in vitro. J Oral Sci 2007;49(1):67–73. DOI: 10.2334/josnusd.49.67
  10. Shen P, Walker GD, Yuan Y, et al. Polyols and remineralisation of enamel subsurface lesions. J Dent 2017;66:71–75. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2017.08.008
  11. Miake Y, Saeki Y, Takahashi M, et al. Remineralization effects of xylitol on demineralized enamel. J Electron Microsc 2003;52(5):471–476. DOI: 10.1093/jmicro/52.5.471
  12. Oliveira LG, Delbem ACB, Gonclaves FMC, et al. In vitro effect of low fluoride toothpaste supplemented with sodium trimetaphosphate, xylitol, and erythritol on enamel demineralization. J Appl Oral Sci 2003;31:e20220410. DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757-2022-0410
  13. Milburn JL, Henrichs LE, Banfield RL, et al. Substantive fluoride release from a new fluoride varnish containing CXP™. Dentistry 2015;5(12):1–6. DOI: 10.4172/2161-1122.1000350
  14. Brown JP, Amaechi BT, Bader JD, et al. Visual scoring of non cavitated caries lesions and clinical trial efficiency, testing xylitol in caries-active adults. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2014;42(3):271–277. DOI: 10.1111/cdoe.12082
  15. Pulido MT, Wefel JS, Hernandez MM, et al. The inhibitory effect of MI paste, fluoride and a combination of both on the progression of artificial caries-like lesions in enamel. Oper Dent 2008;33(5):550–555. DOI: 10.2341/07-136
  16. McKnight-Hanes C, Whitford GM. Fluoride release from three glass ionomer materials and the effects of varnishing with or without finishing. Caries Res 1992;26(5):345–350. DOI: 10.1159/000261466
  17. Tange T, Sakurai Y, Hirose M, et al. The effect of xylitol and fluoride on remineralization for primary tooth enamel caries in vitro. Pediatr Dent J 2004;14(1):55–59. DOI: 10.11411/pdj.14.55
  18. Grewal N, Sharma N, Kaur N. Surface remineralization potential of nano-hydroxyapatite, sodium monofluorophosphate, and amine fluoride containing dentifrices on primary and permanent enamel surfaces: an in vitro study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2018;36(2):158–166. DOI: 10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_142_17
  19. Cardoso CAB, De Castilho ARF, Salomao PMA, et al. Effect of xylitol varnishes on remineralisation of artificial enamel caries lesions in vitro. J Dent 2014;42(11):1495–1501. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2014.08.009
  20. Amaechi BT, Higham SM, Edgar WM. Caries inhibiting and remineralizing effect of xylitol in vitro. J Oral Sci 1999;41(2):71–76. DOI: 10.2334/josnusd.41.71
  21. Arends J, Smits M, Ruben JL, et al. Combined effect of xylitol and fluoride on enamel demineralization in vitro. Caries Res 1990;24(4):256–257. DOI: 10.1159/000261278
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.