Citation Information :
Arali V, Supraja AN, Rapala H, Vemagiri CT, Kallakuri M, Kumar GL. Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Etidronic Acid and Propolis against E. faecalis in Primary Teeth: An In Vivo Study. J South Asian Assoc Pediatr Dent 2023; 6 (2):51-55.
Aim and background: The study aimed to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of 11% alcoholic extract of propolis and 9% etidronic acid against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in endodontically treated necrotized primary teeth.
Methods and materials: A total of 30 necrotic primary molars, either maxillary or mandibular teeth in children of age 3–8 years, were randomly included, of these 15 teeth were irrigated with 11% alcoholic extract of propolis (group I) and 15 teeth with 9% etidronic acid (group II); two microbiological samples with sterile paper points were taken from within the canal in both groups, first sample after the access opening and before first irrigation (S1), and another sample after final irrigation and debridement of infection, before obturating the tooth (S2). All samples (S1 and S2) were evaluated for the presence of E. faecalis by colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL).
Results: In group I, a statistically significant decline in CFU/mL (p < 0.05) was observed in samples before and after irrigation. The same results were obtained with group II, with a statistically significant decline of CFU/mL (p < 0.05). Among both groups, after irrigation, a statistically significant decline was noticed in support of 9% etidronic acid.
Conclusions: The 9% etidronic acid exhibited a greater decrease of CFU/mL against E. faecalis than that observed with an 11% alcoholic extract of propolis. Hence, etidronic acid can be proposed as an alternative irrigant for necrotic primary teeth.
Senthil B, Deepa G, Madhusdhan V, et al. Primary tooth root canal irrigants - a review. Int J Pure Appl Math 2018;120(5):565–589.
Camp JH. Pediatric endodontic treatment. In: Pathways of the pulp. St Louis: 1994;4(1):633–671.
Jaju S, Jaju PP. Newer root canal irrigants in horizon: a review. Int J Dent 2011;2011:851359. DOI: 10.1155/2011/851359
Peters OA, Schönenberger K, Laib A. Effects of four Ni-Ti preparation techniques on root canal geometry assessed by micro computed tomography. Int Endod J 2001;34(3):221–230. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2591.2001.00373.x
Haapasalo M, Endal U, Zandi H, et al. Eradication of endodontic infection by instrumentation and irrigation solutions. Endodontic Topics 2005;10(1):77–102. DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-1546.2005.00135.x
Pozos-Guillen A, Garcia-Flores A, Esparza-Villalpando V, et al. Intracanal irrigants for pulpectomy in primary teeth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;26(6):412–425. DOI: 10.1111/ipd.12228
Santos FA, Bastos EM, Maia AB, et al. Brazilian propolis: physicochemical properties, plant origin and antibacterial activity on periodontopathogens. Phytother Res 2003;17(3):285–289. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1117
Rathod S, Brahmankar R, Kolte R. Propolis. A natural remedy. Indian J Dent Res Review 2011;50–52.
Verma MK, Pandey RK, Khanna R, et al. The antimicrobial effectiveness of 25% propolis extract in root canal irrigation of primary teeth. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2014;32(2):120–124. DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.130786
Tulsani SG, Chikkanarasaiah N, Bethur S. An in vivo comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and Biopure MTAD™ against Enterococcus faecalis in primary teeth: a qPCR study. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;39(1):30–34. DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.39.1.c4q2155r16817219
Ruiz-Esparza CL, Garrocho-Rangel A, Gonzalez-Amaro AM, et al. Reduction in bacterial loading using 2% chlorhexidine gluconate as an irrigant in pulpectomized primary teeth: a preliminary report. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2011;35(3):265–270. DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.35.3.y052311j23617837
Ng YL, Spratt D, Sriskantharajah S, et al. Evaluation of protocols for field decontamination before bacterial sampling of root canals for contemporary microbiology techniques. J Endod 2003;29(5):317–320. DOI: 10.1097/00004770-200305000-00001
Zehnder M. Root canal irrigants. J Endod 2006;32(5):389–398. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2005.09.014
Kujumgiev A, Tsvetkova I, Serkedjieva Y, et al. Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity of propolis of different geographic origin. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;64(3):235–240. DOI: 10.1016/s0378-8741(98)00131-7
Mehdipour O, Kleier DJ, Averbach RE. Anatomy of sodium hypochlorite accidents. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2007;28(10):544–546, 548, 550.
Girard S, Paqué F, Badertscher M, et al. Assessment of a gel-type chelating preparation containing 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate. Int Endod J 2005;38(11):810–816. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2005.01021.x
Al-Qathami H, Al-Madi E. Comparison of sodium hypochlorite, propolis and saline as root canal irrigants: a pilot study. Saudi Dent J 2003;15(2):100–103.
Jaiswal N, Sinha DJ, Singh UP, et al. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of chitosan, chlorhexidine, propolis and sodium hypochlorite on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm : an in vitro study. J Clin Exp Dent 2017;9(9):e1066–e1074. DOI: 10.4317/jced.53777
Bhagwat SA, Lopez TA, Mandke LP. Comparison of the effect of ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, chlorhexidine, etidronic acid and propolis as an irrigant on the microhardness of root dentin: an in vitro study. J Dent Res Rev 2016;3(1):23–30. DOI: 10.4103/2348-2915.180112