Contemporary Behavior Guidance Techniques to Outsmart Child\'s Anxious Mind
Disha Kapil, Bhavna G Saraf, Neha Sheoran, Gauri Kalra, Siji Elizabeth
Child behavior, Dental anxiety, Dental fear and anxiety, Pediatric dentistry
Citation Information :
Kapil D, Saraf BG, Sheoran N, Kalra G, Elizabeth S. Contemporary Behavior Guidance Techniques to Outsmart Child\'s Anxious Mind. J South Asian Assoc Pediatr Dent 2021; 4 (1):41-49.
Behavior guidance techniques have been the foundation stone behind success in pediatric dental practice involving both nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods. Modern approaches, attitudes, and expectations of parents and society have devised the modifications in old behavior guidance techniques. However, the applicability of these modalities has not been explored currently. These techniques principally emphasize alleviation of dental anxiety or dentophobia among infants, children, adolescents, and children with special health care needs (SHCN) to provide quality oral health care and to instill a positive dental attitude. This review is intended to provide updates in contemporary behavior guidance techniques such as tell-play-do, animal-assisted therapy, virtual reality, etc., which may provide state-of-art dental management in young children benefitting dental health care providers, parents, and other concerned parties.
Kaur R, Jindal R, Dua R, et al. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of audio and audiovisual distraction aids in the management of anxious pediatric dental patients. J Indian Soc Pedodont Prevent Dent 2015;33(3):192. DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.160357.
Armfield JM, Stewart JF, Spencer AJ. The vicious cycle of dental fear: Exploring the interplay between oral health, service utilization and dental fear. BMC Oral Health 2007;7(1):1. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-7-1.
Oliver K, Manton DJ. Contemporary behavior management techniques in clinical pediatric dentistry: out with the old and in with the new? J Dent Child 2015;82(1):22–28.
Swarna K, Prathima GS, Suganya M, et al. Recent advances in non-pharmacological behaviour management techniques in children–an overview. IOSR J dent Med Sci 2019;18:18–21.
Paryab M, Arab Z. The effect of filmed modeling on the anxious and cooperative behavior of 4-6 years old children during dental treatment: a randomized clinical trial study. Dent Res J 2014;11(4):502.
Alrshah SA, Kalla IH, Abdellatif AM. Live modelling vs tell-show-do technique for behaviour management of children in the first dental visit. Mansoura J Dent 2014;1(3):72–77.
American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Behavior guidance for the pediatric dental patient. The Reference Manual of Pediatric Dentistry. Chicago, Ill: American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry; 2020. pp. 292–310. Assessed on November 2, 2020.
Mifflin KA, Hackmann T, Chorney JM. Streamed video clips to reduce anxiety in children during inhaled induction of anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2012;115(5):1162–1167. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e31824d5224.
Aminabadi NA, Erfanparast L, Sohrabi A, et al. The impact of virtual reality distraction on pain and anxiety during dental treatment in 4-6 year-old children: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2012;6(4):117.
Singh D, Samadi F, Jaiswal JN, et al. Stress reduction through audio distraction in anxious pediatric dental patients: an adjunctive clinical study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):149. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1254.
Naithani M, Viswanath D. Child's dental anxiety: management by audio and audio-visual distraction technique-a comparative study. Univ Res J Dent 2014;4(2):1–01. DOI: 10.4103/2249-9725.132974.
Dedeepya P, Nuvvula S, Kamatham R, et al. Behavioural and physiological outcomes of biofeedback therapy on dental anxiety of children undergoing restorations: a randomised controlled trial. Eur Archi Paediat Dentis 2014;15(2):97–103. DOI: 10.1007/s40368-013-0070-3.
Nuvvula S, Alahari S, Kamatham R, et al. Effect of audiovisual distraction with 3D video glasses on dental anxiety of children experiencing administration of local analgesia: a randomised clinical trial. Eur Archi Paediat Dentis 2015;16(1):43–50. DOI: 10.1007/s40368-014-0145-9.
Attar RH, Baghdadi ZD. Comparative efficacy of active and passive distraction during restorative treatment in children using an iPad versus audiovisual eyeglasses: a randomised controlled trial. Eur Archi Paediat Dentis 2015;16(1):1–8. DOI: 10.1007/s40368-014-0136-x.
Navit S, Johri N, Khan SA, et al. Effectiveness and comparison of various audio distraction aids in management of anxious dental paediatric patients. J Clin Diagnos Res: JCDR 2015;9(12):ZC05. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/15564.6910.
Sayed A, Ranna V, Padawe D, et al. Effect of the video output of the dental operating microscope on anxiety levels in a pediatric population during restorative procedures. J Indian Soc Pedodont Prevent Dentis 2016;34(1):60–64. DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.175516.
Al-Khotani A, Bello LA, Christidis N. Effects of audiovisual distraction on children's behaviour during dental treatment: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Acta Odontol Scand 2016;74(6):494–501. DOI: 10.1080/00016357.2016.1206211.
Chaturvedi S, Walimbe H, Karekar P, et al. Comparative evaluation of anxiety level during the conventional dental procedures with and without audiovisual distraction eyeglasses in pediatric dental patients. Journal of International Oral Health 2016;8(11):1016.
Allani S, Setty JV. Effectiveness of distraction techniques in the management of anxious children in the dental operatory. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2016;15(10):69–73. DOI: 10.9790/0853-1510026973.
Yasemin M, Kasımoglu Y, Kocaaydın S, et al., Reduction of dental anxiety and pain in children using robots. In Proceedings from the Ninth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions 2016 Apr 24. Assessed on November 2, 2020.
Babaji P, Chauhan PP, Rathod V, et al. Evaluation of child preference for dentist attire and usage of camouflage syringe in reduction of anxiety. Eur J Dentis 2017;11(4):531. DOI: 10.4103/ejd.ejd_223_17.
Rank RC, Rank MS, Vilela JE, et al. Dental anxiety and behavior in young children undergoing different distraction techniques. Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada 2017;17(1):3651.
Shah HA, Nanjunda Swamy KV, Kulkarni S, et al. Evaluation of dental anxiety and hemodynamic changes (Sympatho-adrenal response) during various dental procedures using smartphone applications v/s traditional behaviour management techniques in pediatric patients. Int J Appl Res 2017;3:429–433.
Vishwakarma AP, Bondarde PA, Patil SB, et al. Effectiveness of two different behavioral modification techniques among 5–7-year-old children: a randomized controlled trial. J Indian Soc Pedodont Prevent Dent 2017;35(2):143. DOI: 10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_257_16.
Habib-Agahi R, Gandjalikhan-Nassab SA, Hashemipour MA, et al. Comparing pain and pain-related behavior in children with invented telescopic dental needles. J Oral Health Oral Epidemiol 2017;6(1):33–39.
Gupta N, Gupta H, Gupta P. Evaluation of the role of music as a nonpharmacological technique in management of child patients. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(3):194–197. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2015.
Al-Halabi MN, Bshara N, AlNerabieah Z. Effectiveness of audio visual distraction using virtual reality eyeglasses versus tablet device in child behavioral management during inferior alveolar nerve block. Anaesth, Pain Intens Care 2018. 55–61.
Garrocho-Rangel A, Ibarra-Gutiérrez E, Rosales-Bérber M, et al. A video eyeglasses/Earphones system as distracting method during dental treatment in children: a crossover randomised and controlled clinical trial. Eur J Paediat Dentis 2018;19(1):74–79.
Atzori B, Lauro Grotto R, Giugni A, et al. Virtual reality analgesia for pediatric dental patients. Front Psychol 2018;9:2265. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02265.
Patil VH, Vaid K, Gokhale NS, et al. Evaluation of effectiveness of dental apps in management of child behaviour: a pilot study. Int J Pedodon Rehabilitat 2017;2(1):14. DOI: 10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_5_17.
Niharika P, Reddy NV, Srujana P, et al. Effects of distraction using virtual reality technology on pain perception and anxiety levels in children during pulp therapy of primary molars. J Indian Soc Pedodont Prevent Dent 2018;36(4):364. DOI: 10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_1158_17.
Khandelwal D, Kalra N, Tyagi R, et al. Control of anxiety in pediatric patients using “Tell show do” method and Audiovisual distraction. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(9):1058–1064. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2381.
Shahnavaz S, Hedman-Lagerlöf E, Hasselblad T, et al. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for children and adolescents with dental anxiety: Open trial. J Med Internet Res 2018;20(1):e12. DOI: 10.2196/jmir.7803.
Berge KG, Agdal ML, Vika M, et al. Treatment of intra-oral injection phobia: a randomized delayed intervention controlled trial among Norwegian 10-to 16-year-olds. Acta Odontol Scand 2017;75(4):294–301. DOI: 10.1080/00016357.2017.1297849.
Nammalwar RB, Rangeeth P. A bite out of anxiety: evaluation of animal-assisted activity on anxiety in children attending a pediatric dental outpatient unit. J Indian Soc Pedodont Prevent Dent 2018;36(2):181. DOI: 10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_54_18.
Monika K, Poonacha KS, Anshula D, et al. Comparative evaluation of dental anxiety and fear in children by using Camouflaged syringe and conventional syringe. J Dental Sci 2019;4(1):000214.
Shetty V, Suresh LR, Hegde AM. Effect of virtual reality distraction on pain and anxiety during dental treatment in 5 to 8 year old children. J Clin Pediat Dentist 2019;43(2):97–102. DOI: 10.17796/1053-4625-43.2.5.
Bux S, Porritt J, Marshman Z. Evaluation of self-help cognitive behavioural therapy for children's dental anxiety in general dental practice. Dentistry journal 2019;7(2):36. DOI: 10.3390/dj7020036.
Radhakrishna S, Srinivasan I, Setty JV, et al. Comparison of three behavior modification techniques for management of anxious children aged 4–8 years. J Dent Anesth Pain Med 2019;19(1):29–36. DOI: 10.17245/jdapm.2019.19.1.29.
Khandelwal M, Shetty RM, Rath S. Effectiveness of distraction techniques in Managing pediatric dental patients. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2019;12(1):18. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1582.
Vallakatla V, Vallakatla S, Dutta S, et al. Conventional and camouflage syringe during Maxillary dental procedures: Relevance to anxiety and pain levels in children. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal 2020;13(1):253–258. DOI: 10.13005/bpj/1883.
Kasimoglu Y, Kocaaydin S, Karsli E, et al. Robotic approach to the reduction of dental anxiety in children. Acta Odontol Scand 2020;78(6):474–480. DOI: 10.1080/00016357.2020.1800084.
Armfield JM, Heaton LJ. Management of fear and anxiety in the dental clinic: a review. Aust Dent J 2013;58(4):390–407. DOI: 10.1111/adj.12118.
Prado IM, Carcavalli L, Abreu LG, et al. Use of distraction techniques for the management of anxiety and fear in paediatric dental practice: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Int J Paediatr Dent 2019;29(5):650–668. DOI: 10.1111/ipd.12499.
Ghadimi S, Estaki Z, Rahbar P, et al. Effect of visual distraction on children's anxiety during dental treatment: a crossover randomized clinical trial. Eur Archi Paediat Dentis 2018;19(4):239–244. DOI: 10.1007/s40368-018-0352-x.
Meshki R, Basir L, Alidadi F, et al. Effects of pretreatment exposure to dental practice using a smartphone dental simulation game on children's pain and anxiety: a preliminary double-blind Randomized clinical trial. J Dent 2018;15(4):250.
Arias MC, McNeil DW. Smartphone-based exposure treatment for dental phobia: a pilot randomized clinical trial. J Public Health Dent 2020;80(1):23–30. DOI: 10.1111/jphd.12340.
Shiloh S, Sorek G, Terkel J. Reduction of state-anxiety by petting animals in a controlled laboratory experiment. Anxiety Stress Coping 2003;16(4):387–395.
Barker SB, Pandurangi AK, Best AM. Effects of animal-assisted therapy on patients’ anxiety, fear, and depression before ECT. J ECT 2003;19(1):38–44. DOI: 10.1097/00124509-200303000-00008.
Manley L. On the use of pets to manage dental anxiety. Dental Hypotheses 2016;7(3):117. DOI: 10.4103/2155-8213.190518.
Spintge R. Clinical Use of Music in Operating Theatres. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2012.
Arangannal P. Effect of music on pain and anxiety in pediatric dental patients. Indian J Pub Health Res Develop 2019;10(12):1127–1130.
Ainscough SL, Windsor L, Tahmassebi JF. A review of the effect of music on dental anxiety in children. Eur Archi Paediat Dentis 2019;20(1):23–26. DOI: 10.1007/s40368-018-0380-6.
Shahid R, Benedict C, Mishra S, et al. Using iPads for distraction to reduce pain during immunizations. Clin Pediatr 2015;54(2):145–148. DOI: 10.1177/0009922814548672.
Tey HL, Tan ES, Tan FG, et al. Reducing anxiety levels in preschool children undergoing cryotherapy for cutaneous viral wart. Arch Dermatol 2012;148(9):1001–1004. DOI: 10.1001/archdermatol.2012.1656.
Zhang C, Qin D, Shen L, et al. Does audiovisual distraction reduce dental anxiety in children under local anesthesia? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Oral Dis 2019;25(2):416–424. DOI: 10.1111/odi.12849.
Rosiak J, Szymańska J. Non-pharmacological methods of fighting dental anxiety. J Pre-Clin Clin Res 2018;12(4):145–148. DOI: 10.26444/jpccr/99771.
Custódio NB, Costa FD, Cademartori MG, et al. Effectiveness of virtual reality glasses as a distraction for children during dental care. Pediatr Dent 2020;42(2):93–102.
Gomes HS, Viana KA, Batista AC, et al. Cognitive behaviour therapy for anxious paediatric dental patients: a systematic review. Int J Paediatr Dent 2018;28(5):422–431. DOI: 10.1111/ipd.12405.
Radomski AD, Wozney L, McGrath P, et al. Design and delivery features that may improve the use of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for children and adolescents with anxiety: arealist literature synthesis with a persuasive systems design perspective. J Med Internet Res 2019;21(2):e11128. DOI: 10.2196/11128.